[India Conquered: Britain's Raj and the Passions of Empire] EBOOK READ


10 thoughts on “[India Conquered: Britain's Raj and the Passions of Empire] EBOOK READ

  1. says: [India Conquered: Britain's Raj and the Passions of Empire] EBOOK READ

    [India Conquered: Britain's Raj and the Passions of Empire] EBOOK READ read & download ☆ eBook or Kindle ePUB â Jon Wilson characters India Conquered: Britain's Raj and the Passions of Empire Probably the most balanced and subjective view on British Raj I have come across to date an account only a British historian could deliver That the British came to India to trade but evolved into conuerors is well known but I never knew the that the Indians always considered themselves as at least their junior partners in this colossal conuest The Indians by this virtue demanded rights and powers from the small elitest

  2. says: [India Conquered: Britain's Raj and the Passions of Empire] EBOOK READ Jon Wilson â 3 review read & download ☆ eBook or Kindle ePUB â Jon Wilson

    [India Conquered: Britain's Raj and the Passions of Empire] EBOOK READ British history is a favorite of mine and in the course of my reading of British history I have freuently come across mentions of the East Ind

  3. says: [India Conquered: Britain's Raj and the Passions of Empire] EBOOK READ

    [India Conquered: Britain's Raj and the Passions of Empire] EBOOK READ I am a long time and avid student of both British and Indian history and I actually enjoyed this book Although I initially found Mr Wilson's writing style overly academic and rather pedantic which it is once I settled into the rhythm of it I wasn't so bothered by it David Eppenstein has written an excellent deta

  4. says: [India Conquered: Britain's Raj and the Passions of Empire] EBOOK READ

    [India Conquered: Britain's Raj and the Passions of Empire] EBOOK READ Now that there are numerous books on the British occupation of India that witnessed two centuries of colonial rule any new author on the subject is burdened with having to provide a guarantee to the reader of providing at least one previously unknown fact or story in the book On this aspect this book is a treasure chest o

  5. says: [India Conquered: Britain's Raj and the Passions of Empire] EBOOK READ

    [India Conquered: Britain's Raj and the Passions of Empire] EBOOK READ Shortlisted for the Longman History Today Prize in 2017 The Chaos of Empire is a gem of a book fully deserving of the praise it has received from historians economists and journalists I was alerted to its existence when reading the

  6. says: [India Conquered: Britain's Raj and the Passions of Empire] EBOOK READ Jon Wilson â 3 review

    Jon Wilson â 3 review read & download ☆ eBook or Kindle ePUB â Jon Wilson [India Conquered: Britain's Raj and the Passions of Empire] EBOOK READ uestion how long does a guilt trip last? Answer 504 pages Let this reviewer nail his colours to the mast he is a child of em

  7. says: characters India Conquered: Britain's Raj and the Passions of Empire read & download ☆ eBook or Kindle ePUB â Jon Wilson Jon Wilson â 3 review

    [India Conquered: Britain's Raj and the Passions of Empire] EBOOK READ Jon Wilson â 3 review characters India Conquered: Britain's Raj and the Passions of Empire uestion how long does

  8. says: [India Conquered: Britain's Raj and the Passions of Empire] EBOOK READ

    [India Conquered: Britain's Raj and the Passions of Empire] EBOOK READ read & download ☆ eBook or Kindle ePUB â Jon Wilson I finished ploughing through this 500 page book yesterday The primary hypothesis the author seeks to prove is that the British rule was sustained by violence and authority as opposed to the earlier Mughal period characterized by negotiations and intricate support networks within rural and urban society This is supposed to counter the romantic

  9. says: [India Conquered: Britain's Raj and the Passions of Empire] EBOOK READ

    [India Conquered: Britain's Raj and the Passions of Empire] EBOOK READ This was the last book that I purchased whilst browsing around in a bookstore Crow Bookshop in Burlington Vermont just before the crisis In that odd first week of March where everything was completely normal until all of a s

  10. says: characters India Conquered: Britain's Raj and the Passions of Empire [India Conquered: Britain's Raj and the Passions of Empire] EBOOK READ Jon Wilson â 3 review

    [India Conquered: Britain's Raj and the Passions of Empire] EBOOK READ characters India Conquered: Britain's Raj and the Passions of Empire It's surprising this book hasn't received reviews so far If you are looking for a recent take on the Raj there aren't a lot of popular choices William Dalrymple has focused on specific events while John Keay has covered a wider scope in less detail This book has the added attraction of being written by an academic historian who has mined many primary as well as secondary sourcesContrary to various critiues thi

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characters India Conquered: Britain's Raj and the Passions of Empire

review India Conuered: Britain's Raj and the Passions of Empire 103 characters India Conquered: Britain's Raj and the Passions of Empire “Jon Wilson visits often ignored arenas of British Indian contact to mount a devastating critiue of British rule The exercise of sovereignty was deemed sufficient unto itself Policy making was chaotic and implementation uneven The only constant was violence This is a brave and long overdue riposte to Raj romanticists” John Keay author of India A History and The Honourable CompanyThe longstanding mythology of the British Raj is sta. I am a long time and avid student of both British and Indian history and I actually enjoyed this book Although I initially found Mr Wilson s writing style overly academic and rather pedantic which it is once I settled into the rhythm of it I wasn t so bothered by it David Eppenstein has written an excellent detailed review with which I heartily agree so I will not repeat his thoughtful and comprehensive critiue Although I was familiar with the basic facts I found the first part of the book particularly informative in its detailed account of the 17th century beginnings and 18th century growth in power of the East India Company which was virtually unuestioned and unchecked by the British Parliament with utterly no cognizance of or concern for the economic political legal social and cultural norms of a diverse native population Not until the early 19th century and from here on I was in familiar territory as Britain s paramountcy was threatened by competition and the Company s reduced profits always the overriding concern were voices raised however ineffectually to examine critically the enterprise and its practices I also thought the author s account of the causes and circumstances around the great rebellion of 1857 to be well done Whatever consideration for the welfare of the peoples of the subcontinent that might have developed vanished as the British government dug in its heels and took direct control from the EIC with a tortuous and self serving effort at moral justification that its policies served the long term interests of the natives whose natural inferiority was deemed to render them incapable of any form of self determination however limited The late 19th century rise of political opposition by increasingly well educated Indians many English educated and trained and the eventual establishment of the Indian National Congress in the wake of widespread famines British work camps and outbreaks of disease is narrated well as is the disastrous 1905 partition of Bengal under the Viceroyship of Curzon which set the stage for religious separatism Poor India Just when it appeared that slow progress might be occurring in the second decade of the 20th century the Great War intervened and all bets were off The period between the world wars Britain s very sudden abrogation of responsibility resulting in India s independence and partition after centuries of relentless suppression is covered rather hurriedly and less comprehensively It s a tragic story but given its vast scope I thought Mr Wilson on the whole did an excellent job

read & download ☆ eBook or Kindle ePUB â Jon Wilson

India Conquered: Britain's Raj and the Passions of Empire

review India Conuered: Britain's Raj and the Passions of Empire 103 characters India Conquered: Britain's Raj and the Passions of Empire Ndence in 1947 The result is a story of continual conflict and lasting legacy The Raj was the most public demonstration of a state’s ability to project power far from home and its perceived success was used to justify not only British but also American interventions around the world in the years that followed Trouble was the story of benign British triumph in India was a carefully concocted fiction here thoroughly and totally debunke. This was the last book that I purchased whilst browsing around in a bookstore Crow Bookshop in Burlington Vermont just before the crisis In that odd first week of March where everything was completely normal until all of a sudden it wasn t I think of that every time I look at this book If I had known it would be many months before I could browse a bookstore again I would have purchased books I bought this because I was lecturing on the East India Company and the Mughals and I figured that I could get some good material out of this tome And I did My class last semester was World History up to 1800 so I read the first couple hundred pages and used some of that material and then I didn t pick this up again for a while Now I am prepping for WH 1800 present so I am dog earing the pages again The trouble is this book is a little bit too long I was hoping that not only would I get lecture material but that I would also understand the history of the Raj a little better and I don t feel like that really worked I had to start skimming around page 350 Wilson does have an argument here about how the British never really had a lot of control and power in India but tended to overreact and ASSERT power all the time as kind of a coping mechanism for feeling insecure That is a good lesson for a world history class And there are some great anecdotes and uotes that help explain Indian attitudes toward British rule at various times But I couldn t assign this in any way it is just too much Too much happening Maybe a book about how British rule was kind of chaotic is fated to be kind of a chaotic read Definitely worth keeping on the shelf though

Jon Wilson â 3 review

review India Conuered: Britain's Raj and the Passions of Empire 103 characters India Conquered: Britain's Raj and the Passions of Empire Rkly and critically wrong In this dramatic revisionist history Jon Wilson upends the carefully sanitized image of unity order and success to reveal an empire rooted far in violence than in virtue far in chaos than in control Following the lives of administrators soldiers and subjects both British and Indian this compelling narrative traces Britain’s rule from the East India Company’s first transactions in the 1680s to Indian Indepe. Shortlisted for the Longman History Today Prize in 2017 The Chaos of Empire is a gem of a book fully deserving of the praise it has received from historians economists and journalists I was alerted to its existence when reading the blog of a prominent American economist but it seems that outside the world of academia and journalism few have heard of it in contrast to works by William Dalrymple among others The major complaints about the book seem to concern the author s academic style of writing but for my part I thought that the writing was engagingDr Wilson is a historian at King s College London and a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society This book the product of years of meticulous and painstaking research drawing on primary and secondary literature presents the thesis that the British Empire in India had no real purpose except to maintain its grip on territory through force and violence Contrary to the asseverations of both apologists for and critics of the despotic regime the British did not have a mission to transform India As Wilson writesThis book has challenged these myths of imperial purpose and power propagated on both the political left and the right Looking at empire from the bottom up through the real lives of its functionaries and subjects we see how imperial power was rarely exercised to put grand purposes into practice Its operation was driven instead by narrow interests and visceral passions most importantly the desire to maintain British sovereign institutions in India for its own sake It left no purpose culture or ideology From the 1680s to the 1850s the East India Company attempted to conuer parts of India for one purpose only to raise revenue Indian regimes did sometimes invite the British to settle in their territory in order to act as a bulwark against competitors Robert Clive who would later establish the Company s control over Bengal first made his name as part of a Company force acting as mercenaries for the Mughals But though the Company did maintain relationships with Indian rulers within the Mughal and Maratha systems they were often fractious It was a world of shifting loyalties and alliances in which competing Indian regimes as well as the British and for a time the French were jostling for power After a string of defeats at the hands of Mughal and Maratha forces for 70 years Robert Clive established British sovereignty over Bengal at the Battle of Plassey in 1757 The Company finally got the special status it had craved and assumed revenue raising powers Now that it had real power it was not about to show any kind of flexibility Wilson excoriates the Company s actions in Bengal in the subseuent decades arguing that the breakdown of the consensual political system in place under the Mughals combined with the impatient focus on the collection of revenue at all costs was a major cause of the Bengal famine of 1769 70 Wilson estimates that 3 4 million died in this famine others put the figure as high as 10 million As Wilson notes such a devastating famine hadn t occurred in Bengal since 1574 when the Mughal conuest of Bengal had only just began even the bad harvests of 1737 and 1738 did not create large mortality rates Even after the famine had occurred the East India Company offered no relief It evaded the responsibility that Indians or for that matter the British in Britain thought were a conseuence of sovereign power Wilson writes in line with his overarching thesisThe East India Company attracted considerable criticism from within Britain over the next few decades as it continued to acuire territory Criticism was primarily directed at the corruption of Company officials but concerns about the welfare of Indians were sometimes raised Reforms were therefore periodically proposed At times they weren t enacted and those reforms that were enacted were counterproductive The reason for this Wilson posits is that reform was only ever an attempt to regain control of events so as not to lose power For example toward the end of the eighteenth century the liberal conservative philosopher Edmund Burke and the Governor General of India Warren Hastings both believed that India had been better ruled before the British conuest but differed as to how the situation should be remedied Wilson s exposition of their views is fascinating Suffice it to say Burke won the argument leading to a new system that was implemented in the 1790s in Eastern India predominantly in rural areas YetThe system undermined the negotiation and face to face conversation which had been so essential to the politics of eighteenth century India As a result it brought dispossession and the collapse of a once rich region s wealth The new system was not designed to create a stable political order in the Indian countryside Its aim was to defend the integrity of the East India Company from accusations in Britain of venality and vice the colonial regime s new insistence on the rigidity of its revenue demand had a bad sometimes catastrophic impact on local livelihoods Lords did not have the money to invest in the infrastructure needed to maintain local prosperity As a result irrigation canals silted up roads fell into disrepair ferry men went out of business and markets declined Production shrank in western Bengal and BiharIn the north west and south of India meanwhile the East India Company conuered territory between 1800 and 1850 as a result of its unrivaled ability to borrow money from global money markets to fund warfare Indeed British expansion was funded by debt But the expansion also led to what Wilson calls a chaotic conglomeration of different establishments there were at least four different kinds of regime in India by 1830 This leads Wilson on to provide a fascinating account of the attempt to exploit utilitarian principles to centralize power in India Though 18th and early 19th Century liberal intellectuals such as Adam Smith Burke and Bentham were all critics of imperialism the latter objecting to it on utilitarian grounds by the 1830s their successors worked in concert with Tory imperialists such as Elphinestone Metcalfe and Malcolm to formulate a system which if implemented at home would have alarmed the most autocratic Tory in Britain As per usual it was justified on the basis that British rule was under threat in India in a way it wasn t in the British Isles while liberals and Whigs opposed the authoritarianism of Tsarist Russia and Metternichian Austria at home they thought that Britain should emulate Russian practices in India With centralization came a number of projects which later imperial apologists would use to attempt to defend the British presence in India But even these projects were not part of an attempt to transform India Wilson compellingly demolishes the mythology surrounding the construction of the railways and the slow and halting development of legal reform The construction of the railways was carried out to protect the Company s power in India from challenge not to improve lives the advantages that public works bestowed on Indian society were very limited Neither railways nor irrigation systems had much of an impact on the livelihood of most Indian workers Most importantly they did not prevent famine Railways in other words were just another way to project the Company s power and sovereignty and weren t emblematic of a wider attempt to remake India in Britain s image or to proselytize Christianity which some observers of the Indian rebellion of 1857 8 suggested was the cause of the discontent As Wilson contendsthere is little evidence that the East India Company attempted to transform Indian society nor is there any evidence that Indians rose up against efforts at reform It was an insurgency against an anxious regime s counter productive effort to hold on to power driven by the East India Company s fearful effort to destroy any centres of authority in India that displayed the smallest flicker of independence Indeed the legal reforms that were proposed back in the 1830s weren t enacted until the 1860s and 1870s Though they were heavily biased against Indians their purpose was again to allow the British to hold onto power not to moralise Although the reforms of the 1830s had conceded that Indians should be able to take official positions in society the reality was that any attempt by Indians to gain a foothold in the legal profession and the judiciary was fiercely resistedIt was against this backdrop of defeat in the rebellion and continued exclusion from positions of power that Indians started to promote self reliance Self reliance was distinct from self rule in this period of Indian resistance to British rule Indians began to rely on their own parallel institutions and organisations especially after famines in the 1870s and 1890s killing millions further emphasised the apathy of the BritishIt was in the economic sphere that Indian efforts would have a lasting impact Many Indians were incensed by the prevalence of poverty in India Some attribute this to a drain of wealth from India to Britain but this is not entirely accurate Wilson argues While it is true that Indian producers were starved of resources this is because the agency houses and the imperial bureaucracy blocked Indian access to global capital markets and insisted on maintaining rigid racial barriers There was a ban on Indian made steel in place until 1899 with restrictions on the mining of coal and iron ore also in place Thus Indians began to rely on their own sources of capital and their own financial institutions creating a number of banks that continue to operate to this day Indian entrepreneurs subseuently relied on these networks As Wilson writesEconomic growth and institutional dynamism occurred in the places that were furthest from the rule of British bureaucrats For example Tata created a series of settlements and institutions beyond the reach of imperial power Tata located India s first modern steel plant in the Chota Nagpur plateau in eastern India building the new town of Jamshedpur between 1908 and 1912 From the beginning the town was administered by an Indian company not the government At times self reliance coincided with self rule India s native states which constituted 45% of the total area of India and included around 23% of India s population were ruled by Indian princes with minimal British involvement except in matters of defence Wilson writes that these areaspioneered research in science technology and the growth of banking It was the Maharaja of Mysore Sir Krishnaraja Wodeyar not one of the Raj s British provincial governors whom Jamestji Tata persuaded to open India s first Indian Institute of Science in 1909 India s first large scale electricity generating plant was built in Mysore too The state of Baroda launched one of India s most successful nationalist banksThis corroborates recent papers by economic historians which suggest that areas of India ruled directly by the British did not invest as much as native states in physical and human capital For example the native state of Travancore announced a policy of free primary education as early as 1817 compulsory primary education was first introduced in the native state of Baroda in 1892 while the British passed a compulsory education act in the nearby Central Provinces only in 1920 due to pressure from Indian politicians Overall estimates suggest that the native states invested twice as much in education than the areas under direct British rule However the highly controversial partition of Bengal in 1905 reversed in 1911 emphasized to many Indians that self reliance which was bearing fruit was not going to be enough Self rule was needed throughout IndiaOnce again imperial bureaucrats were anxious to act uickly to preserve the empire They only differed on how to achieve this the Tories thought that any concessions would lead to the downfall of the empire but the Liberals took power in 1906 Viceroy Harding wrote in 1911 that demands for democracy would have to be satisfiedLiberal imperialism however was always going to collapse under the weight of its own contradictions As Wilson points out the Montagu Chelmsford reforms which introduced a degree of democracy into India s political system still retained some of the authoritarian and despotic attributes of the previous system The Amritsar Massacre of 1919 was triggered by laws which allowed for detention without trial and arrest without warrant It was condoned by much of the imperial bureaucracy emphasising that the imperial regime still intended to suppress dissent by force Despite the contradictions of liberal imperialism Indian politicians did take advantage of the semblance of democracy rapidly improving medical infrastructure introducing compulsory primary education and constructing hydro electric schemes Nevertheless the demand for further democracy could not be held off for long and elected politicians were given full control of provincial governments in the mid 1930s with a power sharing executive This was just another compromised effort to stave off crisis Wilson argues the purpose of the reforms was to fragment India and prevent the establishment of a central national democratic government British treatment of Indian soldiers during WWII would only intensify calls for self government which Churchill s government begrudgingly promised would be implemented after the war as a self governing dominion like Canada Indian society was mobilized for one final push against the Japanese But after the war the fragility of the British presence in India was obvious It was impossible for the British to again use force to counter Indian resistance After independence with the British out of the way the self reliance and institution building that Wilson expertly illustrates earlier on in the book was finally able to take hold across the whole of India newly independent India invested in science and technical education built heavy industrial plants founded new colleges Compared to the stagnant chaos of British rule living standards improved the economy increased by 4% only very slightly slower than the contemporary miracle of France Wrapping up his thesis Wilson points to the abrupt departure of the British as evidence that British power was only maintained for its own sake The empire left no purpose culture or ideology It came and it went

  • Hardcover
  • 584
  • India Conquered: Britain's Raj and the Passions of Empire
  • Jon Wilson
  • en
  • 03 June 2020
  • 9781610392938