(The Alchemy of Air) PDF É Thomas Hager


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  1. says: (The Alchemy of Air) PDF É Thomas Hager

    review The Alchemy of Air Thomas Hager º 7 read & download (The Alchemy of Air) PDF É Thomas Hager The Alchemy of Air is brilliant science writing which means that it reads like a bracing adventure story than a science lecture At the turn of the 20th century an impending crisis faces the world mass starvation The earth simply can't yield enough food to keep up The only men that can save the world are chemist

  2. says: Thomas Hager º 7 read & download (The Alchemy of Air) PDF É Thomas Hager

    review The Alchemy of Air Thomas Hager º 7 read & download (The Alchemy of Air) PDF É Thomas Hager Guano though no saint works many miraclesSo goes a local Peruvian proverb Almost a haiku It's how I like my wisdom served Yes thank you I'll have a Malbec and an order of the Cryptic Guano pleaseGuano or Birdpoop as we call it here There was a time when it was the most prized resource on the planet Liuid gold Well sort of

  3. says: Thomas Hager º 7 read & download summary Ó eBook, PDF or Kindle ePUB º Thomas Hager (The Alchemy of Air) PDF É Thomas Hager

    (The Alchemy of Air) PDF É Thomas Hager It's surprisi

  4. says: Thomas Hager º 7 read & download summary Ó eBook, PDF or Kindle ePUB º Thomas Hager review The Alchemy of Air

    summary Ó eBook, PDF or Kindle ePUB º Thomas Hager Thomas Hager º 7 read & download review The Alchemy of Air Hager gives us a compelling history of two men we might not be familiar with Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch By the end we know these men were very important Their accomplishments changed the worldIn 1898 British Academy of Sciences President Sir William Crookes announced that the world faced a crisis In decades mass starvation would pr

  5. says: review The Alchemy of Air (The Alchemy of Air) PDF É Thomas Hager summary Ó eBook, PDF or Kindle ePUB º Thomas Hager

    summary Ó eBook, PDF or Kindle ePUB º Thomas Hager Thomas Hager º 7 read & download review The Alchemy of Air This was such a fascinating book I loved the history lesson on how physical chemists in Germany learned to fix nitrogen and supply the world with enough fertilizer to feed the growing masses worldwide The latter part of the book was about what I call The Law of Unintended Conseuences Fritz Haber discovered how to

  6. says: review The Alchemy of Air summary Ó eBook, PDF or Kindle ePUB º Thomas Hager Thomas Hager º 7 read & download

    summary Ó eBook, PDF or Kindle ePUB º Thomas Hager Thomas Hager º 7 read & download review The Alchemy of Air A fascinating history of fixed nitrogen and the complex of related chemicals that provide us with fertilizer and explosives and the two Nobel prize winning scientists who developed the process which enabled us to produce these substances in substantial amounts Well written focusing on the difficulties that first Fritz Haber then Carl Bosch faced in producing ammonia which could then be used to produce other nitrogen compounds out

  7. says: (The Alchemy of Air) PDF É Thomas Hager summary Ó eBook, PDF or Kindle ePUB º Thomas Hager Thomas Hager º 7 read & download

    (The Alchemy of Air) PDF É Thomas Hager summary Ó eBook, PDF or Kindle ePUB º Thomas Hager review The Alchemy of Air This is an interesting walk through history following two gifted and interesting Jewish gentlemen from Germany leading up to and through the Second World War I enjoyed the chapters detailing the history of nitrate and how important it was to the world from the earliest days Guano wars and exploration to pull nitrogen out

  8. says: summary Ó eBook, PDF or Kindle ePUB º Thomas Hager Thomas Hager º 7 read & download (The Alchemy of Air) PDF É Thomas Hager

    review The Alchemy of Air Thomas Hager º 7 read & download (The Alchemy of Air) PDF É Thomas Hager The Alchemy of Air A Jewish Genius a Doomed Tycoon and the Scientific Discovery That Fed the World but Fueled the Rise of HitlerThomas Hager Goodreads AuthorI never thought fertilizer could be so interestingThe author briefly covers some of fertilizer's history In detail he describes the value and harvesting of bird guano and then the nitrates of the AtacamaHowever most of the book is about the manufacturing of synthetic fertil

  9. says: review The Alchemy of Air (The Alchemy of Air) PDF É Thomas Hager

    (The Alchemy of Air) PDF É Thomas Hager review The Alchemy of Air The Washington Post starts off its review of this book Somehow fertilizer seems an unlikely subject for a Faustian tale about pride vanity and ambition Yet here it is Faustian I suppose Hager means the two main biographical characters Bosch and Haber sold their soul to the devil I find myself not entirely comf

  10. says: (The Alchemy of Air) PDF É Thomas Hager Thomas Hager º 7 read & download

    (The Alchemy of Air) PDF É Thomas Hager summary Ó eBook, PDF or Kindle ePUB º Thomas Hager Thomas Hager º 7 read & download Favorite book of 2020 thus far I couldn't put this downAn incredibly insightful look into the history of Haber Bosch process and the implications of Haber and Bosch's independent work and discoveries Extremely thought provoking with respect to scientific discovery the role of government and where and how advancement and creativity flourishes

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review The Alchemy of Air

summary Ó eBook, PDF or Kindle ePUB º Thomas Hager Thomas Hager º 7 read & download review The Alchemy of Air Tragic genius cutting edge science and the discovery that changed billions of lives–including your ownAt the dawn of the twentieth century humanity was facing global disaster Mass starvation was about to become a reality A call went out to the world’s scientists to find a solution This is the story of the two men who found it bril. It s surprising how interesting a book about fertilizer can be More specifically this book tells the story of the Haber Bosch process used to manufacture synthetic nitrogen fertilizer by turning atmospheric nitrogen into a form that can be used by plant life If you believe this to be not very important consider this nearly 80% of the nitrogen found inside your body and every other living body in the world originated from the Haber Bosch process It s true from half to one third of the people alive today simply wouldn t be here if it weren t for synthetic fertilizers because there wouldn t be enough food even if everybody ate low on the food chain ie no meatBut there s another side to the Haber Bosch process It allowed World War I to last about two years longer than it would have otherwise because it can also be used to make gun powder and explosives Germany had no access to the raw materials needed to make explosives without the Haber Bosch process and without it they simply would have exhausted their supplies Then later in World War II technologies similar to the Haber Bosch process allowed Germany to make gasoline from coal Since Germany had limited access to alternative sources it s hard to imagine how they could have fueled their mechanized army otherwiseThis book also contains an interesting human interest story about the chemist Fritz Haber and engineer Carl Bosch as their careers first received international praise and recognition only to die later as broken men Fritz Haber was awarded the Nobel prize in 1918 for development of the chemical process and Carl Bosch was awarded the Nobel prize in 1931 for overcoming the engineering problems posed by the large scale continuous flow high pressure technology Fritz Haber s story is particularly tragic since he was Jewish Up until the time of Hitler Haber was an ultra German patriot and even converted to Christianity in an effort to make himself 100% German He was an enthusiastic proponent of the use of poison gas during World War I He found himself to be a man without a country when the Nazis took over He died a broken man in 1934 in Switzerland Carl Bosch was an engineer and business man first and tended to be disrespectful of Nazi politics The IG Farben Board promoted him to a powerless position to keep him out of public and Nazi view He began to drink excessively his health began to fail and he lost interest in living Before he died in 1940 he confided to his son that he foresaw the destruction of GermanyThere s also an ecological side to this story Since the agricultural use of nitrogen is generally less that 50% efficient the use of nitrogen has loaded the world s environment with fixed nitrogen beyond its natural state and has disrupted biological habitats with excessive nutrients leading to algae blooms and eutrophication of lakes

summary Ó eBook, PDF or Kindle ePUB º Thomas HagerThe Alchemy of Air

summary Ó eBook, PDF or Kindle ePUB º Thomas Hager Thomas Hager º 7 read & download review The Alchemy of Air Liant self important Fritz Haber and reclusive alcoholic Carl Bosch Together they discovered a way to make bread out of air built city sized factories and saved millions of lives But their epochal triumph came at a price we are still paying The Haber Bosch process was also used to make the gunpowder and explosives that killed millions. Hager gives us a compelling history of two men we might not be familiar with Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch By the end we know these men were very important Their accomplishments changed the worldIn 1898 British Academy of Sciences President Sir William Crookes announced that the world faced a crisis In decades mass starvation would prevail as natural fertilizer stocks were exhausted The infusion of South American guano in the 1840 s had dramatically increased farm yields Upon their depletion nitrates from the Chilean desert starting in the 1870 s kept farm yields up These fertilizers along with improved sanitation and antiseptic medicine were rapidly increasing world population The population was urban and eating meat Fewer farmers had to produce The nitrates were also being used to make explosivesIn 1907 in Germany Fritz Haber developed a process to make ammonia from air Ammonia is easily converted into fertilizer or explosives Ammonia consists of nitrogen and hydrogen Nitrogen in the air is in a tightly bound molecule N2 unusable by the human body and many of our important crops Nitrogen is in every cell in our body Combining N2 with hydrogen to make ammonia creates fixed nitrogen nitrogen our bodies and crops can use Natural fertilizers are formed by bacteria that fix nitrogen Haber s process worked but didn t scale to the size needed for commercial profitability The successful dye maker BASF had mastered large scale processes and was looking for a new product to ensure its future BASF reached a deal with Haber But it was their young brilliant engineer Carl Bosch who relentlessly solved problem after problem that brought the project to fruition Haber s rare metal catalyst had to be replaced with something cheaper Pure hydrogen had to be produced cheaply Containment vessels that could contain high temperatures and pressures twenty times that of a steam locomotive boiler had to be built And the process had to run 247 continuously Bosch assembled a huge team to develop the new catalyst super strong containment vessels and myriad new technologies and by 1911 could produce tons of ammonia a day The Haber Bosch system was born In 1913 he completed a new factory in Oppau that produced tons per hour and huge profits rolled in In 1914 WWI began The envisioned uick German victory soon evaporated The British Navy cut off Germany s access to Chilean nitrates The BASF plant became critical to the German war effort as a source of explosives first and foremost and fertilizer second But the plant in Oppau was on the west side of the Rhine and on May 27 1915 was targeted by French planes in the first aerial industrial bombing of the war Though the canvas and wood planes and small bombs were primitive lucky hits could disable the plant Bosch now in charge at BASF made a lucrative deal with the German government to build a huge plant tucked well inside Germany at Leuna The new plant would convert the ammonia it produced into nitrate for explosives It opened in April 1917 and by the end of the war was producing 160000 tons per year all of which went to the German military The plant was essentially a single integrated machine two miles long and a mile wide The Leuna plant may well have extended the war for a year Haber long divorced from active involvement with BASF turned militaristic He had achieved prominence leading the prestigious Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry Haber was a Jew who had converted to Christianity for social acceptability and career advancement Even so in Germany he was still considered a Jew and second class citizen This may have added to his desire to prove himself a German patriot He became a science advisor to Kaiser Wilhelm He immediately began working on poison gas He took responsibility not only for making it but its initial deployment Kaiser Wilhelm gave him the Iron Cross after the first successful use in battle The aftermath of the war challenged Bosch and BASF in new ways Now primarily a nitrate company rather than a dye company its secret processes were eyed by the world Its Oppau plant was occupied by the French Bosch agreed to help France build a plant in order to be allowed to operate his business in Germany freely Soon the British got plans The Haber Bosch system secret was out Bosch also faced labor unrest from trade unionists and leftist groups However the great German inflation helped The large debt the company incurred to the German government to build the Leuna plant was uickly repaid Similarly the favorable exchange rate fed profits from substantial foreign sales In a few years BASF was hummingAfter the war Haber was investigated as a war criminal but not prosecuted He returned to run his chemistry institute with his scientific standing intact In Germany he was a hero Despite misgivings about his poison gas work in 1920 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for his development of synthesizing ammonia Haber still the super patriot continued to help the military and began looking for ways to help Germany pay off its reparations He subseuently spent years trying to figure out how to extract gold from sea water Unfortunately all he proved was that prior estimates greatly exaggerated the tiny amount of gold in sea waterBosch next turned his eyes on synthetic gasoline production Realizing the rest of the world would soon be competing in the synthetic fertilizer business Bosch wanted the next big idea Making gasoline from coal was extremely complicated and expensive but it was the type of challenge Bosch embraced and he took it on The investment reuired was huge BASF couldn t do it alone He got other German companies to merge with BASF creating the largest chemical company in the world IG Farben which he ran Bosch also wanted international partners to invest in the project and also to remove the stigma of IG Farben as a German company By 1929 he had some agreements most notably with Standard Oil which shared Bosch s feeling that the world oil supply was limited and declining But what would prove to be a huge oil strike in Oklahoma had just been made Soon oil would be much cheaper than synthetic fuel could be manufactured Then came the stock market crash followed by the depression Amidst the cascading bad news Bosch did win the Nobel Prize in 1931 for his industrial application of Haber s discovery But in 1933 a new dangerous development took place Hitler became chancellor Bosch was concerned Haber was in shock Hitler uickly declared Jews could not work in government positions Hitler s edict was not about religion but race Thus Haber himself would be included except for his preeminent status He resigned anyway Jews who made up a disproportionately large segment of the German scientific community began leaving Germany in droves This concerned many other German scientists such as Max Planck who approached Hitler and found him uncompromisingHaber moved to Cambridge His health was failing and he was distraught over what had become of Germany and his lifetime of trying to be accepted as a true German He was also remorseful over the outcome of his personal life which included two failed marriages Chaim Weizmann talked him into moving to Palestine Sadly he only made it to Switzerland before his heart condition worsened and he died in 1934Bosch was torn He didn t like Hitler and he had many Jewish associates on his staff who were important to him But he saw reality and he saw that the Nazis were very interested in synthetic fuel and synthetic rubber to boot The Nazi government and IG Farben signed a deal financing the expansion of the Leuna plant While he found the Nazis repugnant Bosch put business ahead of principle But in spite of Nazi disapproval in 1935 Bosch with an entourage of old BASF cohorts attended a Max Planck organized memorial for Haber a year following his death Fearing Bosch would continue to antagonize the Nazis the IG Farben board kicked Bosch upstairs to a position managing the board but without any operational responsibility Any remaining Jews or undesirables were ousted or left and IG Farben became one with the Nazi government Sidelined Bosch turned to alcohol and suffered from depression Bosch envisioned only disaster for Germany as it started WWII He died in April 1940The Leuna plant was the target for 22 massive allied bombing raids in the war The 18000 tons of explosive they dropped on it were the eual of the Hiroshima bomb The plant was heavily fortified and well defended by the Germans Allied bomber losses were heavy The raids diminished the plant s output but it still was producing some gas at war s end Albert Speer said after the war that if the plant had been taken out entirely the war would have ended eight weeks laterThe Haber Bosch process is still vital today While greatly modernized today s plants work on the same principle and use the same catalyst In 1972 the first deal China made following Nixon s opening in 1972 was to order thirteen modern Haber Bosch fixed nitrogen plants It was the biggest deal the Chinese communist government had made since it began Chinese starvation and malnutrition receded into the past Today China is the world s largest synthetic fertilizer producer and consumer Hundreds of huge Haber Bosch plants around the world are operating Numerous large pipelines carry their ammonia to market So endemic is synthetically fixed nitrogen that today half of the nitrogen in our bodies comes from a Haber Bosch plant

Thomas Hager º 7 read & download

summary Ó eBook, PDF or Kindle ePUB º Thomas Hager Thomas Hager º 7 read & download review The Alchemy of Air During the two world wars Both men were vilified during their lives; both disillusioned and disgraced died tragically The Alchemy of Air is the extraordinary previously untold story of a discovery that changed the way we grow food and the way we make war–and that promises to continue shaping our lives in fundamental and dramatic wa. This is an interesting walk through history following two gifted and interesting Jewish gentlemen from Germany leading up to and through the Second World War I enjoyed the chapters detailing the history of nitrate and how important it was to the world from the earliest days Guano wars and exploration to pull nitrogen out of everything known to man There is an interesting finding that as early as 1920 human beings at least Europeans have known that without fertilizer the world could not feed the massive population of human beings that resides here There are a couple of things missing that I don t know if they should be included or not but I had uestions Like what impact did the Tambora eruption in April 1815 have if any on the nitrate trade This was the eruption that forced Mary Shelley Percy Shelly and Lord Byron indoors on what should have been a wonderful summer vacation on the Black Sea Mountains of ash vomited into the atmophere with enough volume to blot out the sun and cause massive crop failures etc It seemed with all the emphasis on the exponential growth in population of the human race that this event might have had some significance And even though it was touched on as a possibility surely there is better information available about the link between the Bread to Air machine Haber Bosch and current climate change challenges Those niggling unanswered uestions aside this is a wonderful story of two men who s expertise intelligence and creativity created a process and machine to pull the very basic ingredient needed to feed the planet It painted a wonderful interesting tapestry of the past givng colourful details about all parts of the world and the search for nitrate Not only did this tell about the invention of the Haber Bosch machine it delved into the politics of the day the history of industrialization and painted a picture seldom completed in other books of what German society was like after 1900 but before the second world war Facinating and detailed this did a good job of helping us understand that people invented everything we have that was not provided by nature and God And above all that People have stories and some of them are very interesting 35 stars I deducted because I think some things are missing It s still recommended interesting and worth reading if you like history

  • Paperback
  • 336
  • The Alchemy of Air
  • Thomas Hager
  • English
  • 24 February 2019
  • 9780307351791